Rules for citing and referencing sources of information vary between disciplines. QUT cite|write is the official guide to citing and referencing at QUT and includes information for the following styles:

Generally, your lecturer or tutor will recommend a particular style, this will usually be one of the four QUT styles listed above. But always check their requirements in your unit. Whichever style you use, it is essential to use it consistently throughout your assignment.

See QUT cite|write for QUT Harvard, QUT APA, QUT Numbered and QUT Legal examples of referencing and citation.

QUT Harvard

The Harvard system is one of the most common systems for referencing. It is an author-date system. This means that citations include the author and date, and that the references list is alphabetically by author, regardless of the order they are cited in the text. There are many different versions of Harvard style. QUT Harvard is based on the Chicago Manual of Style. You can consult copies in the library collection when needing more information beyond that in QUT cite|write.

chicago manual of style


The American Psychological Association (APA) style is another important and common style of referencing. It is also an author-date system. The American Psychological Association has editorial control for the APA style. Complete guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or from the official APA style page.

apa manual

QUT Numbered

Vancouver style is largely based on the standard style adapted by the US National Library of Medicine for Medline and other databases. Unlike Harvard and APA, a number is used to locate each source in the reference list.

QUT Legal

QUT recommends the QUT Law School's Written assessment in the law school for use by students for all formal legal writing in the QUT Faculty of Law undergraduate program. Always confirm with your lecturer that they use these guidelines before you begin your assignment.



 Using QUT cite|write APA style, drag and drop the elements of the following citation to format it correctly.

Lindberg, A, Fernie, B. A. & Spada, M. M.
Metacognitions in problem gambling.
Journal of Gambling Studies,
27, 73-81.
doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9193-1
1 author
2 date
3 art title
4 journ title
5 vol pages
6 doi